Ther Adv Chronic Dis. 2022; 13: 20406223221140392. Published online 2022 Dec 2. doi: 10.1177/20406223221140392 PMCID: PMC9720821 PMID: 36479139
Glaucoma, the most common cause of irreversible blindness worldwide, usually causes characteristic optic nerve damage. Pathological intraocular pressure (IOP) elevation is a major risk factor. Drug reduction of IOP is the preferred treatment for clinicians because it can delay the progression of disease. However, the traditional IOP-lowering drugs currently used by patients may be poorly tolerated. Therefore, in recent years, some new drugs have been put into clinical application or in clinical phase I–III studies. They have a better IOP-lowering effect and fewer adverse reactions. Because glaucoma is a chronic disease, drugs need to be administered continuously for a long time. For patients, good compliance and high drug bioavailability have a positive effect on the prognosis of the disease. Therefore, clinicians and scientists have developed drug delivery systems to solve this complex problem. In addition, natural compounds and dietary supplements have a good effect of reducing IOP, and they can also protect the optic nerve through antioxidant action. We summarize the current traditional drugs, new drugs, sustained-release drug delivery systems, and complementary drugs and outline the mechanism of action and clinical effects of these drugs on glaucoma and their recent advances.
Keywords: drug delivery, drug treatment, glaucoma, intraocular pressure, natural product, neuroprotection