The benefits from fermented foods are directly related to the health of our microbiome. A healthy microbiome supports our general health by keeping pathological microbes in check. So your question becomes: is there any evidence that microbes (such as bacteria) are related to glaucoma?
The answer is a conditional yes -- look at the many studies examining the relationship between H. pylori infection and glaucoma or intraocular pressure, for example.
Based on this evidence, I suggest that consuming healthy fermented foods is a smart choice for anyone living with glaucoma. I don't think we know enough to say that any one strain of infectious microbe is totally responsible (or not) for glaucoma, but there is enough evidence that making the choice to eat fermented foods is a easy one. (Making the choice to go on long term antibiotic treatment, on the other hand, may not be such an easy choice.)
Here is a bit of the evidence around H. pylori and glaucoma:
The effects of Helicobacter pylori infection on intraocular pressure in anterior uveitis
We investigated the influence of H. pylori infection on intraocular pressure (IOP) in anterior uveitis patients to clarify whether H. pylori infection is related to high IOP in anterior uveitis and we found that H. pylori infection is associated with high IOP in anterior uveitis.
Eradication of Helicobacter pylori may be beneficial in the management of chronic open-angle glaucoma - PubMed
Conclusion: Helicobacter pylori eradication may positively influence glaucoma parameters, suggesting a possible causal link between H pylori and glaucoma.
H pylori Eradication Benefits Chronic Open-Angle Glaucoma
There was evidence of H pylori infection in 88% of glaucoma cases and in 47% of controls ( P < .001), and eradication was successful in 83% of treated patients. In patients with successful eradication, but not in other patients, mean intraocular pressure and mean visual field parameters improved over two years ( P < .001 for intraocular pressure; P .01 for visual field parameters).